We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China given here help in building a great foundation of concepts and make easy for the students to understand basics. NCERT Textbook will provide you with a lot of interesting topics thus these NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History will be useful in understanding in depth concepts well.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Class 10 Notes History

The Nationalism Movement in Indo-China NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History

Write in brief

1. Write a note on:
a) What was meant by the ‘civilising mission’ of the colonisers
b) Huynh Phu So

Solution

a) Civilising Mission: The colonisers considered themselves as superior to the people of the colonies. According to them, it was their duty to ‘civilise the backward people. Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. Hence, it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce modern ideas into the colony even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditions, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development.

b) Huynh Phu So: Huynh Phu So was the founder of a nationalist movement called Hoa Hao. He performed miracles and helped the poor; criticise unnecessary expenses, gambling, intoxication and the sale of child brides. The French tried to suppress the Hoa Hao Movement. They declared Huynh Phu So as mentally ill, and put him in a mental asylum. They also sent many of his followers to concentration camps.

2. Explain the following:
a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.
b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.
c) The government made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the
students it had expelled.
d) Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi.

Solution

(a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations because the French colonial administration followed a deliberate policy of failing students in their final year examinations so that they could not qualify for better-paid jobs. Only the wealthy Vietnamese could afford enrollment in these expensive schools, and to add to that, very few would pass the school-leaving examinations.

b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta for increased cultivation. This was done under a garb to “civilise” Vietnam on a European model, but it was actually an economic idea meant to increase rice production and subsequent export of rice to the international market.

c) In 1926, in the Saigon Native Girls School, a Vietnamese girl was sitting in one of the front seats. She was asked to vacate her seat for a local French student. But the girl refused to do so. The French principal expelled her. When the angry students protested, they too were expelled. This incident led to a further spread of open protests. Seeing the situation getting out of control, the government made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the students it had expelled.

d) The French wanted to modernise Vietnam, so they decided to rebuild Hanoi. The French part of the city was built as a beautiful and clean city. It had wide avenues and a proper sewage system. But, the other part of the city was not provided with any modern facilities. The waste from the old city drained straight out into the river. During heavy rains or floods, this garbage overflowed into the streets. In such situations, rats began to enter homes in the modern part of the city through sewage pipes and plague spread.

3. Describe the ideas behind the Tonkin Free School. To what extent was it a typical example of colonial ideas in Vietnam?

Solution

Like other colonizers, the French also thought that they were on a civilizing mission. Thus the Tonkin Free School was opened to give Western education. In this school, subjects like science, hygiene and French language were taught to the Vietnamese students. Later on, the French authorities thought that learning science and hygiene was not enough for the Vietnamese to become modern. They should also become modern in their appearance. So, the adoption of the western styles was encouraged in the school. One such style was short haircut. The Vietnamese traditionally kept long hair, so they resisted it. It meant a major deviation from their own identity.

4. What was Phan Chu Trinh’s objective for Vietnam? How were his ideas different from those of Phan Boi Chau?

Solution

Phan Chu Trinh wanted overthrow the foreign rule and set up a democratic republic of Vietnam. He did not want to take help of monarchy to resist French. However, he did not want a wholesale rejection of Western civilisation. While Phan Boi Chau believed that the foreign enemy should be driven out first, and only then the nation’s independence would be restored.

5. With reference to what you have read in this chapter, discuss the influence of China on Vietnam’s culture and life.

Solution

• Geographically, Vietnam is very close to China. In early history, people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful empire of China. After independence, its rulers continued to maintain the Chinese system of government as well as Chinese culture.
• Both the countries had trade relations with each other. Vietnam was linked to what has been called the maritime silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas.
• Chinese language and Confucianism were followed by the upper classes in Vietnam. A Vietnamese nationalist, Phan Boi Chau met the Chinese reformer, Liang Qichao in 1905 and written most influential book, ‘The History of the Loss of Vietnam’ under the strong influence and advice of Qichao.
• In 1911, the monarchy in China was overthrown and a republic was set up. This inspired the Vietnamese students who organised the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam.

6. What was the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam?

Solution

• Religious groups played an important role in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. Christianity introduced by French missionaries faced severe resistance. It aroused anti-imperialist feeling in the minds of the Vietnamese people. Consequently, many religious movements were launched against the French.
• In 1868, the Scholars’ Revolt protested against the tyrannical spread of Christianity, and though the movement was defeated, it inspired others to follow suit. They led a general uprising in the provinces of Ngu An an Ha Tien where a thousand Catholics were killed.
• The Hoa Hoa movement launched by Huynh Phu So in 1939 drew upon popular religious ideas of the nineteenth century. French tried to suppress the movement by declaring him mad exiled him to Laos.
These types of movements were successful in arousing anti-imperialist tendencies in the Vietnamese people.

7. Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life within the US itself?

Solution

• The US got involved in the war in Vietnam because it feared that a communist government would come to power in Vietnam after the National Liberation Front formed a coalition with the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, against Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime. US policy-planners feared a spread of communism to other countries in the area.
• Many in the US itself saw this war not worthy. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in a war that they saw as indefensible. When the youth were prepared for the war, the anger spread. Compulsory service in the armed forces, however, could be waived for university graduates. This meant that many of those sent to fight did not belong to the privileged elite but were minorities and children of working-class families.

8. Write an evaluation of the Vietnamese war against the US from the point of
a) a porter on the Ho Chi Minh trail.
b) a woman soldier.

Solution

a) As a porter I set out without fear on the Ho Chi Minh Trail which was a great expansive network of roads and footpaths. We the heroic porters carried as much as 25 kg to 70 kg of weight on their backs or bicycles. We did not fear that we might fall over in the deep valleys. We bravely walked on the narrow, dangerous roads that marked the treacherous routes. We also did not feel afraid of being shot down by aircraft guns. We put all their fears aside and walked on to maintain the supply line. This fact showed that the porters were heroic and patriotic.

b) We were both warriors and workers. As warriors and soldiers, we Vietnamese women constructed six air strips, they neutralized thousands of bombs and went on to shoot down fifteen planes. There were 1.5 million Vietnamese women in the regular army, the militia, the local forces and professional teams. We were also engaged as porters, nurses and construction workers. Between 1965 to 1975, 80 % of the total 17000 youth were the women.

9. What was the role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam? Compare this with the role of women in the nationalist struggle in India.

Solution

The role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam was very crucial. They helped in nursing the wounded and constructing underground rooms and tunnels. Between 1965 and 1975, 70-80% of the youth working on the Ho Chi Minh trail were women. They served as porters on the Ho Chi Minh trail. They kept open several strategic roads and guarded several key-points. They built six airstrips, neutralised tens of thousands of bombs, transported tens of thousands of kilograms of cargo weapons and food, and shot down fifteen planes.
In India also, women participated in large scale. They participated in protest marches and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. Some of them even sacrificed their lives. They successfully carried out their struggle against the British.