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Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History
Write in Brief
1. Write a note on:
a) Guiseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
c) The Greek war of independence
d) Frankfurt parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
a) Guiseppe Mazzini: Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. He was born in Genoa in 1807. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded underground societies named ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German States. He believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. Therefore, Italy had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.
b) Count Camillo de Cavour: Count Camillo di Cavour was the Chief Minister of Italy. He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French better than Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
c) The Greek war of independence: The Greek War of Independence mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated class in Europe. Since the 15th century the Ottoman Empire had made Greece its territory. In 1821, the Greeks struggled against this and a nationalist movement began. Exiled Greeks and many West Europeans who admired ancient Greek culture supported the Greek nationalists. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. After the war, the Treaty of Constantinople was signed in 1832 that recognised Greece as an independent nation.
d) Frankfurt parliament: Middle-class professionals, businessmen, wealthy artists and artisans came together to vote for an all-German National Assembly. They met at Frankfurt on 18 May, 1848, and 831 elected representatives walked to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul. A Constitution was drafted for a German nation which was to be headed by a monarchy, subject to a Parliament. However, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, rejected the offer to head such a monarchy and opposed the elected assembly. The opposition grew stronger eroding the Parliament. As the Parliament was dominated by middle-class members, resisted the demands of workers and artisans and so lost their support. Lastly, the troops were called and the Assembly was also disbanded.
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, started several newspapers and took part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied suffrage during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
The steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst French people were:
• Ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasising the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
• A new French flag, a tricolour was introduced that replaced formal royal standard.
• A new National Assembly elected by active citizens.
• New hymns, oaths and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
• Centralised administrative system.
• Uniform system of weights, measures and abolition of internal customs.
• Discouraging regional dialects and promoting French as a common language of the nation.
3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Marianne and Germania were female allegories for the French and the German nation respectively. Marianne’s characteristics resembled that of Liberty and Republic, i.e. the red cap, the tricolour and the cockade. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
In the 1800s, nationalist feelings were strong in the hearts of the middle-class Germans. They united in 1848 to create a nation-state out of the numerous German States. But the monarchy and the military got together to repress them and they gained support from the landowners of Prussia known as Junkers too. Prussia soon became the leader of German unification movement. Its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process with support from Prussian army and Prussian bureaucracy. The unification process was completed after Prussia won wars with Austria, Denmark and France over seven years time. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Napoleon introduced the following measures to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him:
• He established civil code in 1804 also known as the Napoleonic Code which did away with all privileges based on birth and established equality before law and secured the right to property.
• He simplified the administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
• He removed guild restrictions in the towns.
• He improved the systems of transport and communication.
• Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen were given extensive freedom.
• He introduced uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and introduced a common national currency that would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
The 1848 revolution of the liberals meant a revolution that was led by the educated middle classes of Europe. The events that occurred in February 1848 in France had brought the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe such as Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, independent nation-states had not been formed. Hence, the men and women from the liberal middle classes demanded constitutionalism as well as national unification.
• Politically, they supported the ideas of government by consent; the end of autocracy and clerical privileges; a constitution; and, a representative and parliamentary form of government.
• Socially, they wanted the abolition of discrimination based upon birth.
• Economically, they wanted inviolability of private property, the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
Three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe were:
• Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science and focussed instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a shared collective heritage and a common cultural past as the basis of a nation. German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder a Romantic, claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people. He claimed that folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances held the true spirit of the nation.
• The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore, as the Grimm brothers did, was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. Even though Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, national feelings were kept alive there through music and language.
• Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place but was ultimately crushed. After this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.
3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
The development of the German and Italian nation states in the nineteenth century:
• Unification of Germany: In 1848, an attempt was made to unite different regions of the German Confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. However, this liberal initiative was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, who were supported by the large landowners of Prussia. Thereafter, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy in the process. Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January I 871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed as the German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
• Unification of Italy: In the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states. Of these, only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under the Austrian-Habsburg Empire, the centre was ruled by the Pope while the southern regions were dominated by the Bourbon kings of France. Also, the Italian language had many regional and local variations. In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini sought to formulate a coherent programme for a unitary Italian republic and also had established a secret society called Young Italy for the fulfillment of his goals. The revolutionary uprisings in 1831 and 1848 largely failed. Thus, the responsibility of uniting Italian states was now on King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont. The Chief Minister of Italy, Cavour led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was able to conclude a diplomatic alliance with France. Also, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers, under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi, also joined the movement. In 1860, these troops marched into south Italy and the kingdom of Two Sicilies. These areas were liberated and later joined with Sardinia. In 1870, Rome was vacated by France and it became a part of Sardinia. Finally, Italy was unified in 1871.
4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
In Britain, the history of nationalism was not similar to the rest of Europe. The nation-state in Britain was not the result of a sudden revolution, but it was a gradual process over time.
• The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
• The English Parliament had seized power from the monarchy in 1688. The Parliament played an instrumental role in forming the new nation-state with England as its centre.
• The Act of Union was signed between England and Scotland in 1701 and the United Kingdom of Great Britain’ was formed. The British Parliament came to be dominated by the English members. It meant that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. They were forbidden to speak their local language or wear traditional dresses. A large number of people were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
• Ireland was divided between the Catholics and the Protestants. The English assisted the Protestants in Ireland to establish their superiority over the Catholics. The revolts started by the Catholics were crushed. Ireland was then forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
• A new British nation was created. The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag, the national anthem, the English language were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
• The Balkan was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising of modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, and its inhabitants were broadly called Slavs.
• A large part of the Balkans was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. In the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire was coming down to collapse. There were revolts by various nationalities for freedom and independence.
• The spread of the romantic ideas in the Balkans also resulted in nationalist propaganda in the region. The imperialistic designs of the European powers further complicated the issue.
• The Russian Czars encouraged the Pan Slav Movement in order to bring the states of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece under its control.
• The other European powers were alarmed at the growth of Russian influence in the Balkans. They exploited the situation to further their interests. This led to a series of wars in the region. This trouble in the Balkan region was one of the chief causes of the First World War.