1. National development, particularly in the Nehruvian era, involved the building of large dams, factories and mines. As tribal areas were located in mineral-rich and forest covered parts of the country, tribals have paid a disproportionate price for the development of the rest of Indian society.
2. This kind of development has benefited the mainstream at the expense of the tribes. The process of dispossessing tribals of their land has occurred as a necessary by-product of the exploitation of minerals and the utilisation of favourable sites for setting up hydroelectric power plants, many of which were in tribal areas.
3. The loss of the forests on which most tribal communities depended has been a major blow. Forests started to be systematically exploited in British times and the trend continued after Independence.
4. The coming of private property in land has also adversely affected tribals, whose community-based forms of collective ownership were placed at a disadvantage in the new system. Example: Narmada Dam.
5. Heavy in migration of non-tribal also threatens the tribals community and culture. This threatens to disrupt and overwhelm tribal communities and culture.